RESEARCH ON TROPICAL DISEASES (1985) p.11 of 12
SIGNIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF
– BRASILIA (Source:
only laboratory established in the world that currently screens anti-schistosomal
drugs for primary prophylactic and curative activity against the
Brazilian strain of schistosomiasis.
the secondary curative test as a means of further evaluating anti-schistosomal
twenty new anti-schistosomal drugs, four classes of compounds having
prophylactic activity, and eight classes of compounds having curative
the IFAT malaria serological testing capability as a routine procedure
at the University of Brasilia.
in vitro continuous cultivation of P.
falciparum in Brazil
the in vitro chloroquine susceptibility testing of P. falciparum at the
University of Brasilia.
isolation, cryopreservation and subsequent in
vitro continuous cultivation
of a Brazilian strain of P. falciparum.
a field study area on the Ituxi River, Amazonas, Brazil for conducting
clinical, epidemiological, immunological and entomological studies.
a new field laboratory at Foresta, Ituxi River, Amazonas to document
exophilic and endophagic behavior patterns for A.
darlingi populations, the
major malaria transmission vector in the Amazon Basin.
baseline studies on the ecology and population dynamics of malaria
vector (A. darlingi).
steps to establish an Entomological Museum at the University of Brasilia
on potential anophelene malaria vectors in Brazil.
short span of time scientists of this unit have shown that T. rhodesiense
infections of bovines provide a good model for the pathology of human
trials by infection and cure have proven that broad-based protection
against an entire serodeme of T.
congalense can be induced, and
that this protects not only against a trypanomastigote but also against
metacyclic (fly-borne) challenge.
of the antigenic inter-relationships of human trypanosome isolates from
the Lambwe Valley demonstrated that as few as one serodeme may exist in
an endemic area, and that it is antigenically stable over a long period
leishmaniasis, an in vitro
culture system and a leishmania complement fixation test have been
established and their utility in the diagnosis of kala azar established.
azar in Kenya has been shown to be refractory to current US treatment
studies of the pharmacokinetics of Pentostam and Glucantime have been
undertaken in collaboration with Kenya physicians.
that with the collection of appropriate specimens and the availability
of adequate laboratory tests, a definitive diagnosis can be achieved on
over 80% of fevers which had previously been diagnosed as fevers of
unknown origin, and that scrub typhus, leptospirosis, arboviral
infections and typhoid are the most common cause of fevers; the findings
establish the relative importance of these diseases, the appropriate
tests and specimens for laboratory diagnosis of fever, and a basis for
clinical management of febrile illnesses.
that scrub typhus is a common cause of febrile illness in rural
Malaysia, accounting for approximately 20% of all fever. Also, scrub typhus infection causes a full spectrum of disease,
from mild and asymptomatic to classical scrub typhus; demonstrated that
without appropriate serological tests, such as the immuno-fluorescence
test, many scrub typhus infections would go undiagnosed. These findings show that scrub typhus is of much greater
significance than was previously recognized, and changes the current
concept that it usually causes significant symptomatology and frequently
that the virulence and antigenicity of scrub typhus rickettsiae do not
change during either transovarial passage in the vector mites, or in
natural passage in mice, monkeys, and man, or in artificial passage in
embryonated eggs, nor does the presence of antibody alter this stability.
This is the first evidence that shows the organism to be
stable antigenically throughout this array of natural and artificial
circumstances, an important consideration in progress toward a scrub
that the preponderance of strains of scrub typhus rickettsiae isolated
from patients, rodents and chiggers were antigenically Karp or
Karp-like; this finding is important for selection of strain(s) from
which to make a vaccine or vaccines.
that a single dose of 200 mg of doxycycline was as effective as a
seven-day course of tetracycline in treatment of scrub typhus; this
finding will lead to a significant alteration in treatment of scrub
typhus, with reduced hospitalization and with many scrub typhus patients
being treated as outpatients.
that young cynomolgus monkeys are a suitable animal model for scrub
typhus. This finding is
important for vaccine development.
that volunteers exposed to the bite of infected mites from
laboratory-maintained colonies develop classical disease. This finding will permit an evaluation of doxycycline as a
prophylactic, and will also facilitate subsequent vaccine trials.
ongoing antimalarial chemotherapy studies, the treatment and
transmission of vivax malaria have been studied and hypotheses
formulated to explain the resurgence of this parasite in Thailand. The efficacy and safety of the new antimalarial, inefloquine, in
treatment and prophylaxis of both vivax and falciparum malaria, has been
confirmed. The effect of
antimalarials and mefloquine upon the sexual cycle of human malarias, an
important consideration in malaria control, has been evaluated. Fansidar
resistance in Indochines refugees is being documented. Planned are studies of the efficacy of Halofantrine, a promising
new antimalarial drug from the WRAIR antiparasitic drug development
cell-mediated immune response to tropical diseases, particularly
malaria, is being studied. Findings
include the characterization of responding classes of white blood cells,
responsiveness of these cells to antigenic and nonantigenic stimulation,
and the description of white cell “killer” factors in the sera of
malaria patients. These
findings are of great importance in understanding the immune response
and in vaccine development.
to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of selected experimental
antimalarial drugs in rhesus monkeys infected with Plasmodium
cynomologj are ongoing. More than 375 compounds have been tested to
date. WR 225448, a recently studied compound, has been shown to be six
times as active as primaquine as a tissue schizontocide. Two other radical curative compounds with more than 15 times this
efficacy of primaquine have been identified.
of Anopheles philippinensis, a presumed secondary vector of malaria in Thailand,
are ongoing. Results
suggest that the current division of this species into two species may
not be correct, or that nivipes,
the second species, is the common member in Thailand, and that philippinensis
is absent or extremely rare. Additionally,
it has been clearly demonstrated that what was previously known as A. balabacensis
is actually a complex of closely related species. The Thailand form has recently been designated as a new species,
This appears to be an extremely important vector of
drug-resistant falciparum malaria in many parts of mainland Southeast
in the epidemiology and transmission of viral hepatitis A and B are
ongoing. Hepatitis B
carriers were found to be common among Thais and to serve as a source of
infection. Studies in both
urban and rural Thai populations have shown transmission at early ages. Initially, transmission of viral hepatitis occurs within the
family, originating largely from carrier mothers, but later it also
appeared to result from associations outside of the family. Saliva and semen from chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus
were proven to be infectious in transmission experiments using gibbons.
Factors relating to transmission of-hepatitis A and B in US troops
stationed in Thailand are being studied.
severe manifestations of dengue (dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue
shock syndrome) have been examined in epidemiological and pathogenetic
studies. The most recent
outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever was temporally related to the
reintroduction of a virus serotype (Dengue 4) not seen for many years. Information developed suggests that as many as ten percent of
Bangkok (Thai) school children may become infected with dengue
hemorrhagic fever. This
school population may be valuable as dengue vaccines become available
for testing. The US
Component provided the central laboratory facility to a cooperative WHO
study that showed the role of activation of complement in the
pathogenesis of dengue shock syndrome.
of dengue virus has been difficult, particularly in patients tested more
than three days after onset of illness. Studies have shown wild dengue virus can be isolated from
cultures of white blood cells when serum samples are negative. Isolation of dengue virus from white blood cells will allow
the precise identification of a large number of previously undiagnosable
1979, studies have been initiated in Thai children and US Peace Corps
volunteers to determine the etiology of diarrhea. These studies also include the relationship between
antibiotic resistance and toxin production in entero-pathogenic E. coli and the efficacy
of doxycycline in prophylaxis of traveler’s diarrhea in Peace Corps
volunteers in Thailand.
have started on the epidemiology of combat wound infections in Thai
fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy for cholera, reducing case
fatality rates from 40% to less than 2%.
spontaneous gangrene (blackfoot disease) in southern Taiwan to be due to
low-grade arsenic toxicity associated with nutritional deficiency.
found to be effective in the treatment of Wilson’s disease by
increasing copper excretion.
effectiveness of Bithionol in the treatment of paragonomiasis.
described transmission cycle, clinical aspects and treatment of
isolations of Japanese encephalitis virus in Taiwan, Okinawa and the
Philippines. Isolated virus
from migratory birds, reptiles, swine and other animals. Demonstrated transovarial transmission of Japanese encephalitis
virus in mosquitoes.
epidemiology of scrub typhus in the Pescadore Islands. Developed monocyte culture as improved diagnostic
technique. Demonstrated efficacy of weekly doxycycline for prevention.
surveillance for new influenza virus strains. First direct evidence of infection of swine during human
influenza outbreak. Described
epidemiologic and clinical aspects of first shipboard outbreaks of
“Russian Flu;” isolated the virus (A/USSR/77).
most frequent causes, excluding malaria, of “fever of unknown
origin” in Marine Corps personnel in Viet Nam to be Group B arboviral
infections, leptospirosis, and scrub typhus.
and determination of the chemical structure of new hemoglobin variants
from Taiwan, Korea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam, Thailand and
mapping of the distribution of arboviruses, schistosomiasis, filariasis,
intestinal parasites, and medically important arthropods in the
first primate model of bancroftian filariasis.
Taiwan to have the highest prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen
carriers, and showed the carrier state to be associated with an
increased risk of developing hepatoma and chronic liver disease.
improved diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis (japonicum),
angiostrongyliasis and amebiasis.
definitive description of parasitological, entomological and clinical
aspects of Timor filariasis.
extent of Schistosoma japonicum
and Bancroftian and Malayan filariasis in Indonesia.
presence of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever in Jakarta and of
chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria on Sumatra, Flores and New
mapping of arboviruses and medically-important arthropods in Indonesia;
isolation to date of all four dengue virus serotypes and Japanese
encephalitis virus; established reference collection of mosquitoes.
diagnosis of typhoid fever through detection of specific antigen in
major causes of febrile illness leading to hospitalization in Jakarta.
reservoir status of rodents for plague, leptospirosis, scrub typhus and
that malaria, arboviral diseases, scrub typhus, diarrhea, and filariasis
were the predominant disease risks to population groups relocated from
Java to Sumatra and South Celebes.
spectrum of bacterial agents causing diarrhea in West and Central Java.
request of the Indonesian Government, mounted teams to investigate
febrile disease outbreaks in Morotai, Central Java (Bantul), and Lombok.
Indonesian Navy in establishing microbiology laboratory.
laboratory support and clinical consultation for U.S. Embassy and local
NAMRU-3 CAIRO, 1946-1979
shown to be effective in treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever.
prevalence of urinary Salmonella
carriers in Egypt reported and shown to be associated with urinary
medical surveys of Yemen.
A new Salmonellas
type (S. Cairo) reported.
isolation of Coxiella burneti
(Q fever) in Egypt.
of “spreading factor” in cercariae of Schistosoma
mansoni, providing insight into skin penetration and infection
technique for identification of intestinal protozoa described, making
mass surveys feasible.
report of human intestinal fluke, Heterophyes
heterophyes, from the Yemen
bat - a possible reservoir for human infection.
virus first isolated and recognized; now known to be a cause of fever in
Africa, Indian, Malaysia, Philippines, and Australia.
of rectal biopsy in diagnosis of schistosomiasis demonstrated.
and grivet monkey confirmed as reservoir hosts of yellow fever virus in
urinary bladder cancer/schistosomiasis interrelationships.
of hepatic involvement in schistosomiasis defined.
of first key to snakes of Egypt.
of needle biopsy of spleen and liver in diagnosis of schistosomiasis
isolations of phlebotomus fever virus from sandflies.
of Alcopar in treatment of hookworm infestation demonstrated.
identified as natural hosts of West Nile fever virus.
medium developed to culture leishmania.
treatise on the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Sudan.
loss in Ancylostoma duodenale
(Old World hookworm) infection first measured.
Chenuda, and Nyamanini viruses isolated from ticks in the Nile Delta.
isolation of Rickettsia conori
and Coxiella burneti (Q Fever)
evidence of Plasmodium ovale
meningitis epidemic due to Group A sulfadiazine-resistant meningococcus
reported; later occurred in the U.S.
of primary and secondary vectors of malaria in the Ethiopian lowlands.
authentication of Trypanosoma rhodesiensis (sleeping sickness) infection
in Ethiopia; identification of vectors.
East equine encephalitis shown to be of toxic etiology, caused by
ingestion of moldy corn.
established as model for relapsing fever research.
documentation of bancroftian filariasis in Ethiopia.
confirmed as most effective therapy for typhoid fever and ampicillin
demonstrated to be an effective alternate therapeutic agent.
drug combintion, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, shown to be
effective in therapy of typhoid fever; also used successfully in
treating bacterial meningitis.
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP)
used successfully for rapid diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis.
meningococcal vaccine shown to offer protection for up to 18 months in
bibliography of ticks and tick-borne diseases.
used successfully for previously untreatable complicated S. mansoni schistosomiasis
on Egyptian mammals, bringing together the data obtained on hosts,
parasites, and disease relationships
a baboon model for immunological studies of S.
epidemiological and clinical features of the 1977-79 Rift Valley fever
outbreak; made the first virus isolations; virus classified for the
first time as belonging to the Phlebotomus group.
on the epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in
Asia, Europe and Africa.